Twelve percent of marine species in tropical eastern Pacific threatened Twelve percent of marine species in tropical eastern Pacific threatened

February 24, 2012 § 1 Comment


Twelve percent of marine species surveyed in the Gulf of California, the coasts of Panama and Costa Rica and the five offshore oceanic islands and archipelagos in the tropical eastern Pacific are threatened with extinction, according to a study by IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) and its partners. Main threats to the region’s marine flora and fauna include over-fishing, habitat loss and increasing impacts from the El Nino Southern Oscillation.

Released this week, the study is the first IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ assessment available for all known species of marine shore-fish, marine mammals, sea turtles, sea birds, corals, mangroves and seagrasses in a major marine biogeographic region. The analysis identifies specific geographic zones where conservation efforts are needed most, including around the mouth of the Gulf of California and the coastlines of Panama and Costa Rica, while also identifying the nature and location of the greatest dangers to marine life.

“Understanding species vulnerability to major threats is paramount for determining how species and marine environments are likely to respond to one or more simultaneous threats,” says Beth Polidoro, Research Associate, IUCN Marine Biodiversity Unit, and lead author of the study. “Identification of threatened species and patterns of threat in the tropical eastern Pacific region can help guide local and regional marine conservation priorities for biodiversity conservation, as well as serve to inform policy.”

In recent years, at least 20 marine species have gone extinct around the world, and more than 133 local populations of marine species have suffered a similar fate. These include the disappearance of the endemic Galapagos Damselfish (Azurina eupalama) during the events of El Niño from 1982-1983. Drastic declines have also been documented across several marine groups, including many populations of commercial fish, coral reef fish, reef-building corals, mangroves, and seagrasses. Two commercial marine fish, the Totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) and the Giant Sea Bass (Stereolepis gigas) are listed as Critically Endangered, and were once common in the waters of southern California and the Gulf of California, Mexico. Both species are extremely desirable for human consumption but have limited ability to cope with severe over-fishing because they have long life spans and the large groups they form when spawning are often targeted by fishers—reducing the chances of rebuilding sustainable populations.

“Saving threatened species is the single most important thing we can do to safeguard ocean health, which benefits millions of people that depend on thriving and productive oceans,” says Scott Henderson, Regional Director of Marine Conservation at Conservation International and co-author of the study. “This new study is a monumental scientific effort which gives governments and support organizations the information needed to focus conservation dollars on the species, places and problems that need help the most.”

The findings reinforce that conservation action is needed for both marine species and the geographic areas where they are most threatened. For example, the creation of a marine protected area around Clipperton Island in the eastern Pacific Ocean should be a high priority, as it has one of the highest proportions of threatened species in the tropical eastern Pacific, and is the only one of the five oceanic islands and archipelagos in the region that lacks complete governmental protection. Legislation to limit mangrove removal from important fishery nursing grounds along the coasts of Costa Rica and Panama is also vital, according to the study. Additionally, better data collection, reporting and monitoring for both targeted and by-catch fisheries species should be an urgent priority for the improvement of marine conservation efforts throughout the region.

“There are tangible steps that we can take to curtail the risk of extinction of species in the tropical eastern Pacific,” says Tom Brooks, NatureServe’s Chief Scientist. “For example, for the few fishery species that are threatened, we must work towards better management on both local and regional scales. We can make a difference, but first we must collect and use the valuable data available.”


Among the Marine Species mentioned are Waved Albatross endemic to the island of Espanola and several species of Sea Turtles found in the Galapagos Islands


Galapagos Albatross

October 21, 2011 § 2 Comments

One of the largest of flying birds, albatrosses have been described as “the most legendary of all birds”.  The Albatross has been the subject of legends and stories for hundreds of years going back to the day of great sailing ships where sailors believed that albatross were the spirits of sailors lost at sea to being the central emblem to the poem  “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”.  

The Galapagos Albatross or the Waved Albatross is the only member of the Albatross family that lives in the topics.  The Galapagos Albatross is considered endemic to the Island of Española though in recent years small groups have been identified on both on the island of Genovesa and 5 to 6 pairs on Isla de la Plata on the coast of Ecuador.  The Albatross arrive on Española each April where they mate, nest and remain through December.

Albatross come back to find the same mate every year until one or the other dies.  The mating ritual begins with the couple engaging in a series of beak jousting moves where they circle each other raise and lower and then clack together.  They then built a nest typically on the rocky surface.  The couple will produce 1 egg per year which is raised in a nursery with other chicks while the parents head out to sea to feed.   In December when the chicks are big enough to survive on their own entire colony will head out to sea where they live over the ocean along the coasts of Ecuador and Peru.

Visiting Española you can see the chicks as well as the adults with their giant 6 foot wing span as the fling themselves off the cliff to fish in an area appropriately nicknamed the Albatross Airport.

Andres Baquero, executive director of Equilibrio Azul Foundation, says that a Waved Albatross population is classified as Critically Endangered. The number one threat to the Albatross population is fisherman as the birds confuse the prey on hooks and get caught by fisherman.  In a study conducted by the Foundation in Santa Elena, 30% of respondents had seen fishermen albatross their hooks.

“Fishermen are not interested in capturing seabirds in the country, that way no problem,” emphasized Baquero.   The sixth meeting of Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP) took place in Guayaquil at the end of August and is looking into new ways to help preserve these majestic birds.

Albatross Return to Española Island

April 16, 2010 § 1 Comment

The southernmost island in the Galapagos Archipelago is also one of the most interesting to visit. The incredible concentration of wildlife found on Española makes it a favorite of tourists and guides alike and each April the Albatross return and make the experience complete.

The Galapagos Islands are volcanic in origin and were never connected to the mainland. Rather each island was born at the Galapagos “Hot Spot” a point deep under the sea where energy from the divergence of the Nazca, Cocos and Pacific plates is released in the form of magma, built up overtime this magma forms sea mounts which rise out from the ocean to form islands.  Over time as the plates continue to shift the islands break free and a new island is born and an archipelago is formed.

Española is a classic example of a shield volcano and the aging process of the islands.  The oldest of the islands at approximately 3.3 million years, Española was formed from a single caldera in the center of the island. As the island moved further and further from the hot spot the volcano became extinct.  When islands are younger and more volcanically active (like Fernandina to the west) the island is stark made up of lava and sand, plant life is limited to pioneer plants and wildlife found on the island are those that can survive the harsh environment and rely on the seas for food.  In contrast on Española as the island moved further and further away from the hot spot the lava fields begins to erode and were replaced by fertile soils.  This soil was able to sustain plants and in turn wildlife. The remote location of Española allowed these life forms to evolve overtime independently of the other islands in the chain and today Española is home to a large number of endemic animals.

The Hood Mockingbird is one such example and endemic to the island. These brazen birds have no fear of man and frequently land on visitor’s heads, shoulders, feet or anywhere else they can  searching for food and water. The Hood Mockingbird is slightly larger than other Mockingbirds found in the Galapagos; its beak is longer and has a more curved shape. It is the only carnivorous mockingbird and feeds on a variety of insects, turtle hatchlings and sea lion placentas.

Home to three species of Darwin Finch the large cactus finch, small ground finch and warbler finch can all be found.  For those who read about the Galapagos one of the better known inhabitants is one that you will never see – the Española Tortoise.  In 1965, the tortoise population on Española had been reduced to just 12 females and 2 males all of which were transferred to the Darwin Station on Santa Cruz.  In 1976 another male was found at the San Diego Zoo and transferred to the Galapagos to join the breeding program.  The first great success of the tortoise breeding and rearing program, in 1991 tortoises were repatriated to Española and today there are more than  living in a protected environment near Manzanillo Bay.

Española offers two visitor sites each with a very different experience, the beach at Gardner Bay and the Rocky Cliffs and wildlife of Punta Suarez.

On the northern coast is Gardner Bay, consisting of two long stretches of beach the sites main attraction is the sea lion colony that has found the powdery white sands the perfect place to take a never-ending siesta.  Gardner Bay is one of the few open areas within the national park where visitors are free to explore on their own, as long as they keep an eye out not to step on any sea turtle nest.

The snorkeling at Gardner Bay is fantastic. Close to the beach you can swim with sea lions this is an opportunity not to be missed. Further out towards Tortuga Rock and Gardner Island schools of large colorful tropical fish including yellow tailed surgeon fish, angelfish and bump-head parrot fish swim along with an occasional Manta Ray gliding by and white-tipped sharks napping on the bottom.

On the western tip of Española is Punta Suarez one of the best sites in the Galapagos. The amount of wildlife is overwhelming. The walk is approximately 2 hours and during mating season Punta Suraez comes to life as one big party.

Arriving on shore you are met by carefree sea lion pups waiting to entice you back into the water.  Colorful marine iguanas are waiting along the walkways and scattered in the rocks.  Normally marine iguanas are black in color, a natural camouflage, making it difficult for predators to differentiate between the iguanas and the black lava rocks where the iguana’s live. The subspecies found on Española appear to be almost festive; these iguanas which are normally a reddish shade turn green during mating season.

Continuing inland Galapagos Doves peck around seemingly unaware of your presence, finches fly back and forth between bushes and Galapagos Hawks are seen perched waiting for their next meal.  Here masked and blue footed boobies dance with their partners. Masked boobies flapping their wings as the blue-foots strut around their bright feet honking and whistling as if they each have their own party noise maker.  Young boobies appear to be in costumes as their downy feathers look like wig on their otherwise naked body.

The trail leads to the cliff’s edge where a fissure in the lava below creates a dramatic blow-hole forcing the sea water over high in the air as if it were liquid confetti.  These cliffs are an excellent place to watch what seems to be a magic show, swallow-tailed gulls and red-billed tropicbirds levitated by thermals perform stunts overhead.

If wildlife is the highlight of Española than the Waved Albatross is the star of the show. Known as endemic to the island Española is their only nesting place.  Albatross arrive on Española each April and remain here through December.  The island’s steep cliffs make perfect runways.  These large birds seem somewhat awkward on land as they spread out their expansive wings and run launching themselves off the cliff’s edge.  Once in the air these large birds with their 6-foot wingspan seem transformed as they gracefully soar in the wind.  Española is the only island where you are guaranteed to see albatross in Galapagos.

Española can only be visited as part of a naturalist cruise, and visiting Española is sure to be a highlight of your trip.  Make sure to have you camera batteries fully charged and plenty of space on your memory card because you’ll want to take lots of pictures!

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