March 23, 2012 § Leave a comment
Protests in Ecuador yesterday shut down the capital city of Quito while indigenous protested the governments signing of new mining contracts. The Amazon Rainforest is one of the most bio-diverse areas in the world. As the largest tract of tropical rainforest in the Americas, one in 10 species in the world can be found within the Amazon Basin.
This area is also home to a number of indigenous groups, including groups within the Brazilian Amazon which have remained without contact from the outside world. For decades the Amazon Region has also been exploited for its wealth of natural resources including deforestation, oil production, and mining operations.
Environmentalists are concerned about loss of biodiversity that will result from destruction of the forest, and also about the release of the carbon contained within the vegetation, which could accelerate global warming. As regions within the Amazon Basin continue to succumb to eco-side the many of the indigenous groups from the area have become the voice for the Amazon through community based conservation efforts.
Manta Rays receive international protection from the Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals
December 1, 2011 § Leave a comment
Despite being protected in several countries, manta rays migrate into unprotected waters where they are subject to overfishing. CMS listing will spark coordinated conservation efforts among member countries to monitor the species and protect its habitat.
According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), which declared giant manta rays as Vulnerable with an elevated risk of extinction earlier this month, intense fishing pressures and growing international consumer demand have caused manta ray populations to decline by 30% worldwide, with some regions experiencing an 80% decline over the last 75 years.
Manta rays and their close cousin, mobula rays, are highly valued in Chinese traditional medicine for their gill rakers, cartilaginous projections along the gill arches used for trapping food particles when filter-feeding. Previously targeted by small-scale subsistence fisheries, increasing consumer demand has expanded the gill raker trade into a global commercial industry. According to the IUCN, targeted manta ray fisheries now operate in critical habitats and well-known aggregation sites in the Philippines, Mexico, Mozambique, Madagascar, India, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Tanzania and Indonesia.
The Manta Ray of Hope project, a joint effort of WildAid and Shark Savers, assisted Ecuador’s CMS delegates in shaping the proposal to list manta rays as well as made available to all CMS delegates a condensed version of its forthcoming Manta Ray of Hope report prior to the 10th CMS meeting in Bergen, Norway earlier this month.
The report, which will be released to the public in December, provides the most far-reaching documentation ever conducted on the intensive overfishing of mantas and mobulas and the growing pressures that have pushed these animals to the brink of local extinctions.
“CMS listing is a critical step needed to end the exploitation of mantas and mobulas”, said Peter Knights, Executive Director of WildAid. “By harnessing the cooperation and concerted efforts of member states, the CMS listing sets the stage for cohesive monitoring and regulation of the gill raker trade”.
For its submission to CMS, the Manta Ray of Hope team, led by Shawn Heinrichs, worked with partners in Ecuador, the country that sponsored the move to protect mantas, including local NGO Equilibrio Azul. The team also consulted with Dr. Andrea Marshall, Guy Stevens and Sonja Fordham of Shark Advocates International in advance of the CMS meeting to assist with preparations.
About Manta Ray of Hope: WildAid, Shark Savers, and a team of the top manta researchers in the world are partners in the Manta Ray of Hope project, a collaboration of non-profit organizations, researchers, dive operators, governments and local communities to save mantas and mobulas from this unsustainable trade. Manta Ray of Hope is developing global conservation campaigns based on sound science, including:
- An upcoming report on the destructive fishing and consumption of Mobulids.
- Establishment of trade bans and sanctuaries.
- Education and awareness campaigns for consumers.
- Ecotourism development in fishing communities.
Manta Ray of Hope receives support from the Silvercrest Foundation, Hrothgar Investments Ltd, and private donors.
For more information, please visit www.mantarayofhope.com
Read about the Manta Ray Study in Ecuador and Galapagos
November 9, 2011 § 2 Comments
Since the beginning of the 2011 breeding season, scientists from the University of San Francisco de Quito have observed mass mortality of newborn pups, miscarriages and stillbirths on and near San Cristobal Island in the eastern region of the Galapagos Islands.
Mortality rates for pups have reached almost 60% compared with an average of 5 – 15% in a normal year.
The Galapagos National Park (GNP), with help from the Charles Darwin Foundation (CDF), the University of San Francisco / Galapagos Science Center and Agrocalidad are urgently trying to determine the main reason for the deaths.
The need for a quick diagnosis is clear – the Galapagos Sea Lion (Zalophus wollebaeki) is already classed as endangered and the spread of this disease to other islands in the Archipelago carries a serious threat to the species. Although the cause of this mass mortality remains unknown, the clinical signs point to a variety of diseases, some of which may have the potential for transmission to and from other mammals, or possibly even humans.
The scientists at CDF are acting with great urgency together with their partners and have requested the support of the Galapagos Conservation Trust to aid:
- the identification of the disease agent
- the formation of an action plan to contain the disease
- the monitoring of future pup mortality, sample collection and analysis
- the sampling of sea lion colonies on other islands for comparison and to identify the spread of disease
- the protection of public health
- the planning and implementation of health surveillance to identify and mitigate disease threats in the future more rapidly
October 5, 2011 § 1 Comment
On the island of San Cristobal, the Galapagos National Park Service is working to control the number of introduced species in the islands specifically the rat and cat population. This increased effort to eradicate these species is being done after monitoring of visitor sites on San Cristobal showed the presence of these animals.
Scientists have long agreed that introduced plants and animals are the single greatest threat to the Galapagos ecosystem. Black rats are responsible for killing of the sharp-beaked finch population on the islands of Santa Cruz. Park officials say there are a total of 50 bird species currently endangered by rodents, 8 of them critically as well as giant tortoises, iguanas and a series of plants. Rats are omnivores and will eat whatever they encounter including animal eggs.
Similarly feral cats have been known to endanger a range of species. Park officials have previous stepped up their eradication efforts after finding feral cats were preying on colonies of iguanas on Santa Cruz and Baltra, red-footed boobies on San Cristobal and penguins on Isabela.
In San Cristobal the rodent bait is being placed at 83 stations near the Interpretation Center and Isla Lobos. Additionally 160 stations of baited sardines are being established to control cats from Punta Carola, Frigatebird Hill, Puerto Chino and La Loberia. Park authorities say approximately 70% of the traps are currently in place and daily monitoring of the sites has already began.
August 15, 2011 § 1 Comment
The authorities of the Galapagos National Park of Ecuador and the operators of the airport in Baltra are seek to find protect the land iguanas living on the island of Baltra.
Victor Carrion from the national park stated today, since July a total of (5) iguanas have been found dead in the airport area, (3) were killed when hit by aircraft, (1) by motor vehicle and the other by activity near the airport. The airport operators have told the park that they will begin an inspection of the runway before any airplane is allowed to land or take off from Baltra in order to protect the iguanas. While the program is new the park authorities believe the efforts will help along with having training pilots on how to protect the iguanas.
Baltra is the busiest of the airports in Galapagos. “Losing five minutes to protect an iguana, I think it’s worth,” said aware of that little time can mean a lot of money for airlines.Carrion noted that during the 1980’s the National Park and Charles Darwin Foundation implimented a iguana breeding program to restore land iguanas to Baltra. In 1932 amateur naturalist G. Allan Hancock capture 20 iguanas from Baltra and introduced them to the island of North Seymour which at the time did not have an iguana population. While this act would be unheard of today his efforts are what allowed the park to initiate the breeding program. The iguana breeding program was successful, Baltra now has approximately 1,000 iguanas. While at one time land iguanas on the island were at the brink of extinction. “There is increasing population of iguanas, the reproduction in the wild is very good,” said Carrion.
“They in certain areas are looking for new areas of life because iguanas are quite territorial and that has forced to take a step just for the airport area,” said the advance that has been advanced in training for staff who are responsible for remodeling terminal and runway.
Thus, workers will know that before getting into the vehicle should be checked, for example, that motor is not under any iguana sheltering from the sun.
July 21, 2011 § Leave a comment
Ecuador‘s controversial Cash for Environmental Protection has received less funding from foreign governments than Ecuador’s president Rafael Correa had hoped for. The plan which originally called for $3.5 billion dollar to be pledged in order to preserve the area currently only has $40 million pledged – $35 million of which is debt which was cancelled to aid the plan. In an effort to raise the money desired individuals can now contribute as little as $1 to save the Yasuni Rainforest. The Yasuni Rainforest is a stunning area of primary rainforest and home to the Yasuni Parrot Lick is a highlight for visitors of visitors to the Amazon Rainforest including those visiting the Napo Wildlife Center and Sacha Lodge.
by guardian.co.uk © Guardian News and Media
Posted: 21 July 2011
Individuals can contribute as little as US$1 to compensate the country for leaving its oil underground.
In 2007, Ecuador floated an unprecedented proposal: it would leave a fifth of its oil reserves – 846m barrels of crude – underground for the health of the planet if, in return, the international community stumped up $350bn (£217bn), half its market value. The oil lies in the Ishpingo, Tambococha and Tiputini (ITT) oil fields, beneath the stunning Yasuni national park in Ecuador’s Amazon, an area that scientists have called the most biodiverse tract of rainforest in the world.
But after four years of vainly trying to secure the cash from rich nations, Ecuador is turning to . . . us. Last week, the Yasuni-ITT trust fund, administered by the UN Development Programme, became open to donations of as little as $1 (previously, the fund only accepted contributions of $10,000 or more). “The idea is that individuals the world over will show their support . . . by symbolically ‘buying’ a barrel of Yasuni oil,” says Carlos Larrea, technical director for the crowdfunding initiative.
The environmental case for protecting this piece of Yasuni national park is beyond question: it boasts an incredible diversity of plant, animal and insect species, including 644 types of tree in a single hectare. It is also home to at least two uncontacted tribes. Leaving the oil underground will avoid the emission of 407m tonnes of CO2 – equal to the annual footprint of Brazil. The cash raised will be used to develop national renewable energy initiatives, in turn helping to fund environmental and social projects across Ecuador.
Chile and Spain were among the first to swell the coffers, adding $100,000 and €1m respectively. Italy followed by cancelling $35m of Ecuadorian debt, with the proviso that the money went into the fund. Germany, however, backed out of its initial pledge to contribute an annual €50m.
There is now around $40m in the Yasuni pot, but the clock is ticking. If there isn’t at least $100m by December, Ecuadorian president Rafael Correa has said he will ditch the scheme for “Plan B” – drilling for the oil.
As if to prove he means it, the rainforest surrounding the ITT block is rapidly being readied for exploitation. Without that missing $60m, there’s every chance the ITT block could be next.
July 19, 2011 § 1 Comment
Freezing temperatures in Antarctica are warning indicates that it is time to migrate. The southeastern Pacific humpback whales know it and taking the journey. The course of 8 000 miles to the coast of Ecuador will demand less energy to remain in these icy waters, where, during the winter, food is scarce due to lack of sun and other climatic factors.
The humpback visitors arrive and the show starts. Breaths, jumps, spins …, a tourist attraction that impacts the economy of coastal areas, a sign that the warm Ecuadorian waters (about 25 degrees) helps keep the average temperature (37.5 degrees) of these giant mammals, an opportunity for the scientific community, local and international, research more about them.
Protecting these whales is the objective of marine biologist Fernando Felix of the Whale Museum in Salinas, Santa Elena. With thirty years of research related to whales, the scientist has good and bad news.
Among the good, the population that reaches coast of Ecuador is increased to 5% annually, but the bad news is that same increase triggers problems that if action is not taken will reduce the number of whales.
“The fishing nets installed along the coast are the main risk to the whales and for the fishermen laying the nets” said Felix, who explained that due to the lack of legislation and control over fishing methods, the installed fishing nets (2 km long and 8 feet deep or so) in which the whales, they need to surface every fifteen minutes to avoid drowning, they can stay tangled and die.
The fishermen often leave these nets “installed” in the sea, using floats and weights in the extremities, which extended to keep them waiting for their prey (large fish such as billfish, dorado …) but also tend to hook the boat the nets and just wait for the fish. “Imagine a whale collision with the net at that moment,” Felix poses. “The whale can drag the boat in its attempt to break free,” he says.
Given this, the biologist Gustavo Iturralde, project specialist and regulations of the Undersecretariat of Marine Coastal Management, said that within the Management Plan for the Coastal Wildlife Production Reserve de la Puntilla Santa Elena (protected area created in late 2008) who plan to submit in the coming months, covers the beginning of studies to determine the impact of networking and aims to craft agreements with fishermen in this area so that, between June and September, do not install gear that can affect the whales.
Among the latest data registered in the Population Study of the Humpback Whale in Salinas during the 2010 season, presented by the Whale Museum and annual activity report to the Ministry of Environment, outlined the presence of 839 whales in this sector in 2010 .
But according to annual surveys conducted since 1991 by the Ecuadorian Foundation for the Study of Marine Mammals and later by the Whale Museum, each year they are four to five whales entangled in gillnets craft, but presumably the number is 30 specimens, many of them drown off the coast and serve as food for other larger whales such as orcas.
But this bad news adds another: the recent business of swimming fish hatcheries. “Now there are about three experimental pools, but if the number grows, it would be bad for the habitat of whales,” says Felix. Meanwhile, Iturralde stressed that this activity is the responsibility of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries. “This is in the exploratory stage. If it does materialize activity, the Ministry of Environment will take steps to protect the ecosystem, “he adds.
Among the major problems occur between June and September, are: the reduction of open water where the whales can navigate, the whales are at a greater risk of entanglement in addition the pollution of the seabed for the remains of food left by the pools.
And with these problems, the controls are minimal, the research concern, but argues that the controls Iturralde are concentrated in protected areas and the National Directorate of Aquatic Spaces is responsible for the spaces outside.
Meanwhile, violations continue. Although regulations for whale watching are in place. Whale watching boats are to depart from port with a captain or member of the Armed Forces, who are trained to operate boats in waters in and around whales. The previous Sunday, for example, around Salinas, the Journal found that private boats (not tourist) cruising near these giants without guests without regard for the regulations.